Går du til legen med en infeksjon, får du antibiotika. Driver du oppdrett av laks, heller du antibiotika i vannet. Vi medisinerer alle deler av matproduksjon og fordi vi ikke vet bedre krever vi antibiotika når vi er hos legen. Dette gjør vi for å spare en dag eller to på vårt sykdomsforløp. Den kortsiktige løsningen, gir alvorlige ikke løsbare problemer med resistente bakterier.

Antibiotika brukes i dag i vanvittige mengder.  De store farmasøytiske selskapene bruker milliarder på leger og produksjonsindustri for å opprettholde og utvide bruken av antibiotika.  Markedsføringen er direkte og midlene som brukes kan vanskelig sammenlignes med andre bransjer. Leger verden over tjener mer på å skrive ut medisiner enn andre metoder for å bli frisk. Legene blir selgere først og helsearbeidere etterpå.

Stadig flere «Superbugs» grunnet over-medisinering 

Antallet resistente bakterier øker og ved behandling av alvorlige sykdommer står helsepersonell ofte hjelpeløse med medisiner som ikke virker.

Konsekvensene er allerede store og økende, forskningsmiljøer og myndigheter bruker stadig større ressurser på å løse resistens problemet. Til tross for dette benyttes antibiotika fortsatt i økende grad. Ironien er at det meste av forskning gjennomføres innenfor «tradisjonell medisin» og i samarbeid med farmasøytisk industri.

Det måtte et Afrikansk universitet til for å komme opp med alternativer til antibiotika og resultatene er oppløftende. Ikke bare fordi det er meget gode resultater knyttet til honning og ingefær, men også fordi dette kan bringe en spire til mer forskning utenfor det tradisjonelle området.

Les om sport på Sporten.com 

Honning og ingefær

Honning, og kombinasjoner av honning og urter har vært brukt i tusenvis av år for å motvirke ulike plager, inkludert infeksjoner.

Forskere ved University of Gondar  (Etiopia) har undersøkt flere alternativer til antibiotika i kampen mot superbugs som MRSA (meticillinresistente Staphylococcus aureus), Escherichia coli og Klebsiella pneumoniae. Disse er blant de mest dødelige kjente “superbugs”.

Forskerne utførte en laboratorie-studie for å teste inhiberings områder.

Les også: Ingefær brukt som medisin i 3000 år

Forskerne separat testet etiopisk honning, ingefær og en kombinasjon av de to mot tre ulike antibiotika. (meticillin, amoxicillin og penicillin). Forskerne testet også et vann ekstrakt av ingefær.

Forskerne gjennomførte tester på følgende bakterier:

  • Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA og ikke-MRSA)
  • Escherichia coli (to forskjellige stammer)
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae

Effekten var i alle tilfeller vesentlig bedre for honning og ingefær enn for de typene antibiotika de testet mot.  Detaljer finner du nederst i artikkelen.

«Det er skremmende hvor mange likheter det er mellom den farmasøytiske industri og mafiaen» Tidligere visepresident i Pfizer legemidler bosatt på hemmelig sted.

Legemiddelindustrien har betalt 3,5 milliarder dollar til leger og sykehus de siste 5 mnd. Ref: «Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services» (CMS).

Omfanget av betalinger til Leger over hele verden er enormt og tar mange ulike former, det er betalte oppdrag, stipender, reiser, forsknings støtte, kickbacks og provisjoner. Bare i USA i løpet av et år har det blitt gjennomført enkeltbetalinger til leger og sykehus 4,4 millioner ganger. Systemet er gjennomkorrupt og det setter vår helse i fare. Vi kan alle komme opp i situasjoner hvor vi trenger antibiotika, dumt da at det ikke virker fordi kortsiktig gevinst er viktigere.

Her finner du mer i kategorien: Helse

Med så mye penger i omløp, kan vi da stole på rådene vi får av legen.

Tallene forteller alt: Honning og ingefær ekstrakt hadde hver for seg en gjennomsnittlig hemming av 19,23 blant alle fem bakterier som ble testet (strekker seg 13-24).

Kombinasjonen av ingefær ekstrakt og honning hadde enda større antibiotiske egenskaper.  Gjennomsnittlige hemming nivåer 25,62 (spenn 19-30) – Dette slo ut alle farmasøytiske antibiotika med god margin.

  • Honning og ingefær hadde en mildere inhibering på 19,23 blant alle fem bakterier.
  • Stoffet meticillin hadde en gjennomsnittlig midlere inhibering på bare 4,0
  • Medikament Amoxicillin hadde en gjennomsnittlig inhibering på 12,25
  • Penicillin hadde en gjennomsnittlig inhibering på 13,25.

Konklusjon

Honning og ingefær i kombinasjon synes å avverge farlige bakterier bedre enn våre mest kjente antibiotika i denne studien.

Noen artikler om undersøkelsen:

Readynutrition

Greenmedinfo

Hindawi

NaturalSociety

Daylynutritionnews

Ref:

  1. L. Pieters and A. J. Vlietinck, “Bioguided isolation of pharmacologically active plant components, still a valuable strategy for the finding of new lead compounds?” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 100, no. 1-2, pp. 57–60, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. J. Balunas and A. D. Kinghorn, “Drug discovery from medicinal plants,” Life Sciences, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 431–441, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. World Health Organization (WHO), “Regulatory situation of herbal medicine,” A World Wide Review, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  4. World Health Organization (WHO), General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000.
  5. K. Kassaye, A. Amberbir, B. Getachew, and Y. Mussema, “A historical overview of traditional medicine practices and policy in Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 20, pp. 127–134, 2006.View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Davies, “Inactivation of antibiotics and the dissemination of resistance genes,” Science, vol. 264, no. 5157, pp. 375–382, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Cáceres, L. Fletes, L. Aguilar et al., “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 3. Confirmation of activity against enterobacteria of 16 plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Osho and O. Bello, “Antimicrobial effect of honey produced by on some common human pathogensApis mellifera,” Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Science, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 875–880, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  9. H. D. Une, S. C. Pal, V. S. Kasture, and S. B. Kasture, “Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological profile of Albizzia lebbeck,” Journal of Natural Remedies, vol. 1, pp. 1–5, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  10. F. Omoya and F. Akharaiyi, “Mixture of honey and ginger extract for antibacterial assessment on some clinical isolates,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  11. A. Sebiomo, A. D. Awofodu, A. O. Awosanya, F. E. Awotona, and A. J. Ajayi, “Comparative studies of antibacterial effect of some antibiotics and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on two pathogenic bacteria,”Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials, vol. 3, pp. 18–22, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  12. R. V. Patel, V. T. Thaker, and V. K. Patel, “Antimicrobial activity of ginger and honey on isolates of extracted carious teeth during orthodontic treatment,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 1, supplement 1, pp. S58–S61, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Dunford, R. A. Cooper, R. J. White, and P. C. Molan, “The use of honey in wound management,”Nursing Standard, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 63–68, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. O. Esimone, F. B. C. Okoye, D. C. Odimegwu, C. S. Nworu, P. O. Oleghe, and P. W. Ejogha, “In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of lozenges containing extract of garlic and ginger,” International Journal of Health Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 105–110, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. D. Jolad, R. C. Lantz, A. M. Solyom, G. J. Chen, R. B. Bates, and B. N. Timmermann, “Fresh organically grown ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production,” Phytochemistry, vol. 65, no. 13, pp. 1937–1954, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Kumar, L. Karthik, and K. V. Bhaskara Rao, “A review on pharmacological and phytochemical properties of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae),” Journal of Pharmacy Research, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 2963–2966, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  17. G. A. Otunola, O. B. Oloyede, A. T. Oladiji, and A. J. Afolayan, “Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of three spices—Allium sativum L. Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Capsicum frutescens L. commonly consumed in Nigeria,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 41, pp. 6927–6931, 2010.View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. I. Sasidharan and A. N. Menon, “Comparative chemical composition and antimicrobial activity fresh & dry ginger oils (Zingiber officinale Roscoe),” International Journal of Current Pharmacology Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 40–43, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  19. S. P. R. Adel and J. Prakash, “Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of ginger root (Zingiber officinale),” Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, vol. 4, no. 24, pp. 2674–2679, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Bao, A. Deng, Z. Li, G. Du, and H. Qin, “Chemical constituents of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale,”Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 598–601, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar· View at Scopus
  21. I. Stoilova, A. Krastanov, A. Stoyanova, P. Denev, and S. Gargova, “Antioxidant activity of a ginger extract (Zingiber officinale),” Food Chemistry, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 764–770, 2007. View at Publisher ·View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Al-Tahtawy, A. El-Bastawesy, M. Monem, Z. Zekry, H. Al-Mehdar, and M. El-Merzabani, “Antioxidant activity of the volatile oils of Zingiber officinale (ginger),” Spatula DD, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  23. T. A. Ajith, V. Nivitha, and S. Usha, “Zingiber officinale Roscoe alone and in combination with α-tocopherol protect the kidney against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 921–927, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. R. Carrasco, G. Schmidt, A. L. Romero et al., “Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinaleRoscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 961–967, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Grzanna, L. Lindmark, and C. G. Frondoza, “Ginger—an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 125–132, 2005. View at Publisher ·View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Z. Shenkute, Personal Interview with HMC Pharmacy Services Pharmacist on Topic of Ethiopian Traditional Medicine Use in Immigrant Patients, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Wash, USA, 2008.
  27. Y. Ewnetu, W. Lemma, and N. Birhane, “Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniaein Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia,” Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, p. 269, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  28. A. Kirakosyan, E. Mitchell Seymour, K. R. Noon et al., “Interactions of antioxidants isolated from tart cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruits,” Food Chemistry, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 78–83, 2010. View at Publisher ·View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. H. Liu, “Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 134, no. 12, supplement, pp. 3479S–3485S, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. Andualem, “Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 725–731, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. S. P. Malu, G. O. Obochi, E. N. Tawo, and B. E. Nyong, “Antibacterial activity and medicinal properties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale),” Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 365–368, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  32. Clinical andutic Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), “Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: seventeenth Information supplement,” CLSI Document M100-S17, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  33. J. Roy, D. M. Shakleya, P. S. Callery, and J. G. Thomas, “Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of a traditional herbal medicine containing garlic and black cumin,” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. Gheldof, X. Wang, and N. J. Engeseth, “Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 21, pp. 5870–5877, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. Temaru, S. Shimura, K. Amano, and T. Karasawa, “Antibacterial activity of honey from stingless honeybees (Hymenoptera; Apidae; Meliponinae),” Polish Journal of Microbiology, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 281–285, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Marcucci, “Propolis: chemical composition, biological properties and therapeutic activity,”Apidologie, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 83–99, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. Bastos, M. C. M. dos Santos, S. Mendonça, and E. A. F. S. Torres, “Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of stingless bee honey from amazon in comparison to Apis bee honey,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Human Health Effects of Fruits and Vegetables, ISHS Acta Horticulturae, 841, Houston, Tex, USA, August 2009, http://www.actahort.org/books/841/index.htm.
  38. A. P. Farnesi, R. Aquino-Ferreira, D. de Jong, J. K. Bastos, and A. E. E. Soares, “Effects of stingless bee and honey bee propolis on four species of bacteria,” Genetics and Molecular Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 635–640, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. C. Molan, “The antibacterial activity of honey. 1. The nature of the antibacterial activity,” Bee World, vol. 73, pp. 5–28, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  40. P. J. Taormina, B. A. Niemira, and L. R. Beuchat, “Inhibitory activity of honey against foodborne pathogens as influenced by the presence of hydrogen peroxide and level of antioxidant power,”International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 217–225, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. W. Fahey and K. K. Stephenson, “Pinostrobin from honey and Thai ginger (Boesenbergia pandurata): a potent flavonoid inducer of mammalian phase 2 chemoprotective and antioxidant enzymes,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 25, pp. 7472–7476, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. V. Bansal, B. Medhi, and P. Pandhi, “Honey—a remedy rediscovered and its therapeutic utility,”Kathmandu University Medical Journal, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 305–309, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. N. Ndip, A. E. Malange Takang, C. M. Echakachi et al., “In-vitro antimicrobial activity of selected honeys on clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori,” African Health Sciences, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 228–232, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. N. F. Tanih, C. Dube, E. Green et al., “An African perspective on Helicobacter pylori: prevalenc of human infection, drug resistance, and alternative approaches to treatment,” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 189–204, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. E. Manyi-Loh, A. M. Clarke, N. F. Mkwetshana, and R. N. Ndip, “Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections: mitigating factors and prospective natural remedies,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 14, pp. 2032–2042, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. E. Manyi-Loh, A. M. Clarke, and R. N. Ndip, “An overview of honey: therapeutic properties and contribution in nutrition and human health,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 844–852, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Iurlina and F. Rosalia, “Characterization of microorganisms in Argentinean honeys from different sources,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 297–304, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. J. Willix, P. C. Molan, and C. G. Harfoot, “A comparison of the sensitivity of wound-infecting species of bacteria to the antibacterial activity of manuka honey and other honey,” Journal of Applied Bacteriology, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 388–394, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus